On June 8, 2016, Ohio Governor John Kasich signed House Bill 523 into law, permitting the creation of a state-regulated medical marijuana program. After a brief regulatory delay, medical marijuana sales began in January of 2019, allowing state-registered patients to purchase a variety of cannabis products from licensed dispensaries.

Ohio had a push for recreational legalization in 2015, which failed due to tight restrictions which would have effectively created a small monopoly of cultivators and operators. As a result, possession of cannabis for non-medical reasons is still prohibited in Ohio, though many places have moved to decriminalize small amounts.